In the autumn of 2008, electoral votes brought the following parties to the forefront of Lithuanias political life for the 10th legislative period of the Seimas: the Homeland Union Lithuanian Christian Democrats won 45 seats, followed by the Lithuanian Social Democratic Party with 25 seats. A fair share of 16 seats were won by the National Revival Party, 15 by the Order and Justice Party, 10 went to the Labour Party + Youth coalition, 11 to the Liberals Movement, 8 to the Liberal and Centre Union, 3 to the Union of Farmers and Peoples Parties, 3 to the Electoral Action of Poles in Lithuania, and one to the New Union (Social Liberals). In addition, 4 non-affiliated candidates were elected to the Seimas.
After the elections, the Political Groups of the Homeland Union Lithuanian Christian Democrats with 45 MPs, National Revival Party (18 MPs), Liberals Movement (11 MPs), and Liberal and Centre Union (8 MPs) formed the ruling coalition. Concurrently, the Lithuanian Social Democrats (26), Labour (10), and Order and Justice (18) Political Groups remained in the opposition. Four MPs established the Parliamentary Group of Non-affiliated Members.
Having convened for the first sitting on 17 November 2008, the newly elected MPs voted for Arūnas Valinskas, leader of the National Revival Party, to assume the position of Speaker of the Seimas.
The 15th Government, led by Andrius Kubilius, leader of the Homeland Union Lithuanian Christian Democrats, was sworn in at the Seimas on 9 December 2008.
The summer of 2009 saw the break-up of the National Revival Party Political Group. One of the resulting formations, One Lithuania, took the name of the Christian Party Political Group in February 2010. The second one, initially entitled the Oak Party Group, acted as the National Revival Party Political Group in the period between September 2009 and September 2010, only to merge with the Liberal and Centre Union forming a joint political group, which was renamed into the United Group of the Liberal and Centre Union and National Revival Party in September 2011.
Following the dismissal of Valinskas from the post of Speaker in autumn 2009, Irena Degutienė, member of the Homeland Union Lithuanian Christian Democrats, was elected to the position on 17 September 2009. She is the first woman Speaker of the Seimas in Lithuanian parliamentary history.
As of June 2012, the Board of the Seimas consists of the Speaker of the Seimas, Irena Degutienė and Deputy Speakers of the Seimas: Virginija Baltraitienė, Algis Čaplikas, Erikas Tamašauskas, Česlovas Juršėnas, and Česlovas Vytautas Stankevičius, as well as Algirdas Butkevičius, Leader of the Opposition. Raimondas Šukys and Algis Kašėta also served as Deputy Speakers of the Seimas until March 2010 and June 2011, respectively. The post of Leader of the Opposition was held by Algirdas Butkevičius, Gediminas Kirkilas, Valentinas Mazuronis, and Vytautas Gapšys during this term in office.
As of June 2012, there are seven political groups and a group of 13 non-affiliated members at the Seimas. The ruling majority consists of the Homeland Union Lithuanian Christian Democrats (44 seats), Liberals Movement (12), and Liberal and Centre Union (12). The parliamentary opposition parties are the Lithuanian Social Democratic Party (23 seats), Order and Justice Party (17), Labour Party (10), and Christian Party (8).
Out of 141 MPs elected in 2008, only 139 parliamentarians will end the term in 2012 due to the tragic death of Juozas Palionis, MP, in autumn 2011 and the deaths of Algis Rimas, MP, in summer of 2010 and Justinas Karosas, MP, in June 2012.